The expression "micro elements" refers to the fundamental particles existed in biological material in very small amounts. A trace mineral is a dietary mineral that is required in certain concentrations and quantities for positive growth, development, and body physiology .
Trace elements have a range of important roles in the female and male organisms, including enzymatic activities that attract and enhance the molecules synthesis in certain production processes . Furthermore, some of these contribute or take electrons in oxidation reactions, which are critical for the creation and use of metabolic energy, and some of them have the structural roles and are in charge of the stability of vital biological substances. Moreover, several trace elements are vital for biological functions .
The chronic deficiency of essential trace elements in the body leads to the development of pathological problems and morphological changes as a result of a defect in the cellular metabolism process. Severe micronutrient inadequacy can result in two sorts of changes: on the one hand, varied metabolic problems and on the other hand, the specific immunological disorders. Linked by a decrease in total immune resistance, we can say endocrinopathies, inflammation, and neoplastic disorders are caused by both pathways . The study of changes in the content of bio-elements in the blood in various diseases is important from the viewpoint of practical medicine to identify diagnostic markers and predict the risk of developing a pathological condition .
Heavy metals are a class of chemical elements that have metal-like characteristics (containing semimetals) and a high atomic mass, or density .
The emissions of heavy metals have increased with the industrial growth, and this in turn has led to environmental pollution, which has a negative impact on living organisms. The most dangerous metals for humans are: arsenic, mercury, cadmium, molybdenum, lead, iron, copper, zinc, and so forth . There are several mechanisms for the entry of toxic metals into the bodies of humans: inhalation, through the skin, or oral.
Disruptions in gastrointestinal system activity can reduce or prevent absorption of bio-elements present in foods, resulting in malnutrition in the body.
The aim of the work is to assess the levels and correlations of bio-elements and their coefficients in pre-obese patients.
Analyzing the elements in hair is important in clinical, ecological, and toxicology studies. The levels of various components in the hair may be affected by, among many other reasons, the gender, and age of the person being studied, as well as the degree of pollution in their living situation [8, 9].
Materials and Methods
Hair samples were obtained from young patients over 18 years old living in Grodno, Belarus, whose hair had not been dyed or chemically treated. Samples (100 mg) were collected from the head occiput. Hair is a relatively easy biopsy material to collect and examine due to its ease of storage and transportation.
- Females group 1: n = 25 (BMI = 18–24.9; weight: 52.6±4.58 kg).
- Females, group 2: n = 25 (BMI = 25–29.9; weight: 64.4±1.77 kg).
- Males, group 1: n=25 (BMI=18-24.9; weight: 71.6±3.94 kg).
- Males, group 2: n=25 (BMI=25-29.9; weight: 86.5±1.10 kg).
Preparation and examination of hair samples
Before the analysis, sample preparation was carried out, which consisted of the removal of external contaminants. The hair samples were successively washed in bi-distilled water, acetone of high purity grade, and again in bidistilled water. After drying at temperatures up to 40 °C, as an example, 0.5 g of ground hair, and 0.1 g of boric acid were weighed, and then the mixture was pressed under the pressure of 20 tons for two minutes . The height of the tablet should not exceed 0.5 mm. The pellet diameter should be commensurate with the diameter of the detector window (10 mm). The surface of the tablet must be in contact with the plane of the cuvette. The sample is stored in a special polyethylene container, which allows it to be stored at constant humidity without access to light and with the possibility of repeated measurements after a long time .
The X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) on a CEP-01 or ElvaX device with Elvatech MCA Software and MK-RE-Ob software was used to determine the macro- and micro-element composition of hair [10, 11].
Statistical processing of the research material was performed using the SPSS Statistica 26.0 statistical software package. The value was considered statistically significant at p<0.05 using bivariate correlation test.
Results and Dissections
In the group of females with BMI = 18-24.9, there is a statistically significant inverse relationship between the concentrations of Cu and Zn/Cu, as well as Fe and Co at the significance level (0.05). A strong inverse relationship was found at the significance level (0.01) of Ca/K and K concentrations, Ca/K and Mn concentrations.
Likewise, in the group of females with BMI = 18-24.9, there is a statistically significant direct relationship between the concentrations of Ca and Zn/Cu, Zn and Co, Fe and Se, Fe and Cr, Fe and Pb, as well as S and Cd at the significance level (0.05). A strong direct relationship was found at the significance level (0.01) of the concentrations of Ca and Ca/K, Zn and Zn/Cu, Mn and K, Mn and Fe, Cu and Pb, Cu and S, Cu and Cd, Se and Cr, Se and Mo, Se and Hg, Mo and Ca/K, as well as Cr and Hg.
In the group of females with BMI = 25-29.9, there is a statistically significant inverse relationship between the concentrations of K and Cd at a significance level of 0.05. There is a statistically significant direct relationship between the concentrations of Fe and Co, Co and Cr, Co and Cd, K and Mn at a significance level of 0.05. A strong direct relationship was found at a significance level of 0.01 for the concentrations of Ca and Ca/K and the concentrations of Zn and Zn/Cu.
In the group of males with BMI = 18-24.9, there is a statistically significant inverse relationship between the concentrations of Ca and Se, Ca and Cr, Ca and Mo, Se and Ca/K, Cr and Ca/K, Cd and Fe, Cd and Pb, and Cd and Se at the significance level (0.05). A strong inverse relationship was found at the significance level (0.01) for the concentrations of Ca and S, Cu and Zn, Cr and Cd, and the concentrations of Ca/K and K.
Likewise, in the group of males with BMI = 18-24.9, there is a statistically significant direct relationship between the concentrations of Zn and Cu at the significance level (0.05), Fe and Pb, Cr and Se. A strong direct relationship was found at the significance level (0.01) of the concentrations Ca and Ca/K, Cr and S, Zn and Co.
In the group of males with BMI = 25-29.9, there is a statistically significant inverse relationship between the concentrations of K and Ca, Zn and Mo, Pb and Cd, as well as K and the ratio of Ca to K at a significance level of 0.05. An inverse relationship was also established (p=0.01) for Cu concentration and the Zn to Cu ratio. There is a statistically significant (p=0.05) direct correlation between the concentrations of Ca and Mn, Zn and Hg, K and Pb, Fe and Pb, Mn, and the Ca/K ratio. A strong direct relationship at a significance level of 0.01 was revealed for the concentrations of Ca and Cu, Ca and Cr, K and Mo, Fe and Cr, Fe and Hg, Cu and Cr, Mn and S, Cr and Pb, Co and Hg, as well as the Ca/K content in the biomaterial (hair) with Ca, Cu, and Cr.
In the group of males with an increase in the body mass index, the correlations between the concentrations of elements, as well as in the group of females, weaken, and their number decreases by more than one time. In this case, there are more connections between the concentrations of heavy metals in the body, which possibly leads to a violation of metabolic processes (Tables 1, 2, 3, and 4).
The analysis of the obtained data showed that in the group of females with an increase in body mass index, the interrelationships of the accumulation of bio-elements in the body are destroyed as well as statistical correlations, which were absent in the normal-weight group, as presented in Figures 1 and 2. This is called an imbalance of micro- and macro- elements.
Figure 1: The first, second quartiles, and medians of Ca/K, Zn/Cu, Ca, K, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Cr in both males and females with normal and overweight patients
Figure 2: The first, second quartiles, and medians of Cd, Co, Mo, Mn, S, Se, Hg, and Pb in both males and females with normal and overweight patients
In the group of males with an increase in body mass index, the accumulation of some heavy metals is increased compared to the group of males with a normal body mass index, it was found that the median, the first, and the third quartile increase in some macro-elements in males with an overweight body mass index, and the links between essential elements are destroyed, as new correlation coefficients arise that were not in the group of males with a normal body mass index (Figures 1 and 2). The same is for the overweight group of women compared with the control group.
As is known, micro- and macro-elements play an important role in the synthesis of certain vitamins, the activity of certain enzymes and hormones, as well as in the regulation of carbohydrate and fat metabolism [13-16].
Thus, an imbalance of micro- and macro-elements leads to a defect or weakening and a reduction in the roles that they play in the human body, and thus the metabolic process is disturbed.
In the overweight group of males and females, the values of calcium/potassium coefficient and zinc/copper coefficient are higher than the normal values, as well as an imbalance in the binding of bio-elements with each other and their levels compared with the normal group, which leads to a violation of the cellular metabolism process [17-20].
It was found that the ratio of calcium to potassium increased more than the ratio of zinc to copper in both groups of males and females with a BMI of 25-29.9 (Figure 1).
The study demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of using X-ray fluorescence analysis to monitor the balance of macro-and micro-elements in the body in both groups of males and females aged >18 years old with varying BMI.
Bio-elements should not be considered separately since their interaction together produces a biological effect of a new quality. The calcium/potassium ratio can be taken as an indicator of weight gain. The discovered imbalance of macro-and micro-elements in young patients living in Grodno, Belarus in terms of calcium, zinc, iron, copper, and potassium will allow for the early nutritional correction.
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
All authors contributed to data analysis, drafting, and revising of the paper and agreed to be responsible for all the aspects of this work.
Conflict of Interest
We have no conflicts of interest to disclose.
Ali Adeeb Hussein Ali
- E. Kuznetsov
Muna Mohammed Yaseen
HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE
Ali Adeeb Hussein Ali, O. E. Kuznetsov, Muna Mohammed Yaseen. Correlation of Calcium/Potassium and Zinc/Copper Coefficients with Bio Elements in Pre-obese Pateints. J. Med. Chem. Sci., 2023, 6(6) 1394-1409