Document Type : Original Article


Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Agriculture, PMB 2373 Makurdi, Nigeria


In this study, anonymous chemical screening of psychoactive substances (codeine and tramadol) was carried out on urine collected from some students in two Nigerian Universities, coded UN1 and UN2 for a Federal a State University, respectively. Chloroform was used as the extractant and sodium borate was used to adjust the pH of the urine samples to 9. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and UV-Visible spectrophotometer was used as the primary separation and quantification methods, respectively. The concentrations of codeine in the urine samples collected from UN1 sick bay ranged from 2.822 ppm to 44.756 ppm, while that of UN2 ranges from 0.289 ppm to 4.434 ppm. The respective concentrations of tramadol for the institutions are within the range of 0.015 ppm to 34.833 ppm and 0.181 ppm to 37.030 ppm. There was a statistical difference (p<0.05) in the use of codeine and tramadol among students attending the selected clinics. It was suggested that the University students be subjected to continuous routine screening and counseling.

Graphical Abstract

Chemical screening for codeine and tramadol in urine of anonymous students attending university sick bays


Main Subjects

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