M. Nizam Zulfi Zakaria; Ahmad Fariduddin Aththar; Michelle Fai; Syeftyan Muhammad Ali Hamami; Viol Dhea Kharisma; Ahmad Affan Ali Murtadlo; Arif Nur Muhammad Ansori; Teguh Hari Sucipto; Rahadian Zainul
Volume 7, Issue 2 , February 2024, , Pages 336-351
The Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a zoonotic virus transmitted through mosquito bites, can cause dengue-like fever in humans. Despite the lack of specific clinical treatments and vaccines, ...
The Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a zoonotic virus transmitted through mosquito bites, can cause dengue-like fever in humans. Despite the lack of specific clinical treatments and vaccines, there has been limited attention given to CHIKV in recent decades. This study utilized an immunoinformatics approach to design a potential multi-epitope vaccine for CHIKV. The CHIKV multi-epitope vaccine (CHIKV-MEV) was created by combining predicted linear B-cell lymphocyte (LBL), cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL), and helper T-lymphocyte (HTL) epitopes targeting the viral envelope glycoprotein E1/E2 of CHIKV. The selection of each epitope was based on parameters such as antigenicity, immunogenicity, toxicity, and allergenicity. These selected epitopes were incorporated to generate refined and validated 3D models of CHIKV-MEV. Molecular docking simulations were performed to assess the interaction between the generated 3D model of CHIKV-MEV and TLR-1/2. Immune response simulations and population coverage analysis were conducted to evaluate the potential effectiveness of the vaccine. The proposed CHIKV-MEV consists of 439 amino acids, encompassing 18 epitopes, and exhibits predicted properties of being antigenic, immunogenic, non-allergenic, and non-toxic. The binding energy of -1079.0 kcal/mol indicated that CHIKV-MEV can interact with TLR-1/2, leading to immune responses. Immune response simulations of CHIKV-MEV demonstrated an increase in immunoglobulin levels, as well as population of LBL, CTL, and HTL, and cytokine levels associated with the defence against viral infections. Furthermore, based on compatibility with human leukocyte antigen (HLA), CHIKV-MEV potentially covers 96.25% of the global population. This research contributes to the development of a globally applicable multi-epitope peptide-based vaccine against CHIKV, supported by comprehensive in vitro and in vivo studies.