Hawraa Gatea Karkoush; Perry Habib Saifullah
The mitochondrial metabolism is the primary source of energy upon which the heart draws to fulfill its function of pumping blood throughout the body to supply the organs with oxygen. ...
The mitochondrial metabolism is the primary source of energy upon which the heart draws to fulfill its function of pumping blood throughout the body to supply the organs with oxygen. Cardiovascular disease (often referred to as CVD) is the leading cause of death because of the "vascular aging," phenomena which comprises all age-associated changes in arteries, cardiovascular disease is a primary contributor to morbidity and death in the elderly. This disease is caused by a complex interaction of a wide range of risk factors and pathogenic pathways. Deregulation of autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and activation of apoptosis are some cell abnormalities that contribute to the CVD pathogenesis. Other cell abnormalities include metabolic abnormalities, excessive production of reactive species (ROS), energy deficit, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. One of the conceivable ways that mitochondria can be implicated in cellular damage is by an excessive production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS). The presence of abnormally high levels of oxidative and nitrosoxidative stress within the circulatory system is a necessary component in the progression of cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to measure ATP levels, MDA, catalase, and lipid profile. All of these parameters were determined by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELIZA). The findings of this study showed that there is a connection between cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress, as well as those factors (ATP, MDA, catalase, and lipid profile) that influence on the cardiovascular system.