Document Type : Original Article (Special Issue)


Market Research and Consumer Protection Centre, University of Baghdad, Iraq


This research aimed to evaluate the impact of Artemisia annua L. (A. annua L.) on liver and kidney functions following lead-induced injury that was extracted from the plant by using ethanol. Forty male rats were divided into 4 classes (ten rats per group), G1 called negative regulation, G2 administered 15 mg/kg of lead acetate per day for 15 days orally, G3 administered A. annua L. extract at 100 mg/ml IP for 2 weeks, and G4 administered 15 mg/kg of lead acetate per day for 15 days, and then handled A. annua L. at (100 mg/kg b.wt) for two weeks. As a result of the procedure, blood samples were aspirated for serum isolation, the serum was used to estimate alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine, and Urea. The present findings showed a significant (P≤0.05) increase in levels of AST and ALT in G2 compared with G1 and G3 which showed normal values, while G4 showed a significant decrease in ALT and AST levels as compared with G1 and G3, whereas G4 displayed a significant (P≤0.05) reduction popular levels of urea, creatinine G 2 related to G1 and G3 which revealed normal values.

Graphical Abstract

Evaluation of Rats’ Biochemical Markers in Artemisia Annua Linn. Extract After Lead Toxicity


Main Subjects


annua L. commonly known as “annual absinthe” belongs to the family Asteraceae and there are a lot of genera in this one, as displayed in Figure (1). In Asian warm climes, including as China and Korea, it remains generally utilized for culinary and therapeutic houseplant. This plant is native to China and is mature throughout Asia, as well as humid areas [1,2]. A. annua L. was recorded historically before 168 BC. As one of the plants used in modern medicine for treated inflammation, fever, and malaria as a result of its chemical composition containing active artemisinins isolated in 1971 as one of the antimalarial active substances, artemisinic acid, artemisinol, artemisilactone, and epoxyarteannuinic acid which are the major sesquiterpenoids in the aerial component of the plant [3,4].

                                             A: Artemisia Plant                            B: Artemisia Flower

Figure 1: Artemisia (Artemisia annua Linn.) A: Artemisia Plant B: Artemisia Flower


Aerial elements A. annua L. comprises of many biologically active substances such as monoterpenes, flavonoids (such as apigenin, luteolin, and peduletine), pherolics, hormones, terpenes, purines (such as costumolide), lipids, and aliphatic molecules (branch, unbroken, unsaturated, or saturated) in various liters. A. annua L. also contains a broad variety of active chemical compounds and requires airborne materials [5].

  1. annua L. methoxylated flavonoids will potentiate artemisinin's antipalarial activity in rudimentary A. annua L. extracts like casticine, artemetine, chrysosplenol D, and chrysoplenetine [6]. A. annua L., acyclic monoterpenoids including the artemisia ketone are key components of essential oil, while 1, 8-cineol, Linalool, thujone, p-cymene, and camhor are other phytochemicals in essential oils [7].

Lead is one of the metals that pose a threat to human and animal health, but its toxic effects have not been distinguished until the last hundred years, and its danger is represented through its impact on vital systems through its cumulative ability in the tissues of the organism. In addition, its slow effect due to its relatively low solubility in water and in cells, as well as its ability to bind with sulfhydryl SH groups present in the synthesis of some enzymes necessary for metabolic activities, causes their inhibition [8].

The present study was designed to study evaluate the effects of A.annua L. on liver and kidney functions after injury induced by lead toxicity in rats.

Materials and Methods

Preparation of plant extract of A.annua L.

A.annua L. was extracted at 85 °C for 4 hours by water and 25 percent ethanol in an extractor. The filtered extracts were used for in vitro experiments by filter paper. The tests of 10-μm filter cartilage and filtrates were concentrated at 25 percent of the solids at a lower pressure of less than 60°C for the other realistic experiments. The concentrate was mixed with maltodextrin (dextrin 30 percent: firm content 70 percent by weight) and spray was dried.

Experimental Design

Forty rats male were divided into four groups of ten rats per group as follows:  

G1: In addition to the ordinary feed and water, the normal control got deionized water by oral gavage daily.

G2: This group was given 15 mg/kg per day of lead acetate for fifteen days orally addition to the standard feed and water [9,10].

G3: This group was given Artemisia annua extract at 100 mg/ml IP for two weeks.

G4: This group was given 15 mg/kg lead acetate per day for fifteen days, and then they were treated with A.annua L. extract at (100 mg/kg b.wt) for two weeks.

Kits of AST, ALT, Urea, and creatinine

Kits were purchased from Biolabo Company and all procedures were done according to manufacturer instructions [11].

Statistical Analysis

To detect the effect of different parameters in research parameters, the Statistical Analysis System-SAS (2018) application was employed. In this study, the least significant difference-LSD test (ANOVA) was utilized to make a significant evaluation between means [12].

Results and Discussions

Table 1 showed a significant (P≤0.05) increase in AST and ALT levels in G2 as compared with G1 and G3 which showed normal values, while G4 presented a significant reduction in the AST and ALT levels as compared with G1 and G3.


Table 1: Levels of ALT and AST in different treated groups


Mean ± SE

LSD value






73.1 ±2.86


98.1 ±4.72 a

70.4 ±2.94 c

81.6 ±3.61


10.58 *


44.3 ±1.79


68.3 ±2.67 a

42.2 ±2.05 c

52.9 ±2.33


7.44 *

Means having with the different letters in same row differed significantly. * (P≤0.05).



A significant increase was observed in creatinine and urea levels in G2 as compared with G1 and G3 which showed normal values, while G4 showed a significant decrease in levels of creatinine and urea levels as compared with G1 and G3 (Table 2).


Table 2: Levels of urea and creatinine in different treated groups


Mean ± SE

LSD value





Creatinine (mg/dl)

0.575 ±0.08


0.783 ±0.08


0.561 ±0.05 a

0.603 ±0.07 a

0.262 NS



17.75 ±0.76


23.6 ±1.48


16.1 ±0.64 b

20.2 ±1.09 ab

4.859 *

Means having with the different letters in same row differed significantly.  * (P≤0.05).

NS: Non Significant

Lead is a very toxic heavy metal with significant public health implications. Low-level heavy metal exposure such as lead may play a crucial role in the development of chronic disorders (diabetes, kidney, renal disease, cancer, male infertility, etc.) [13].

Treatment of rats with lead acetate resulted in a considerable rise in the activity of serum AST, ALT, creatinine, and urea in this study, and thus similar results were observed by another study [14,15].

Increased aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels in lead-acetate-cured rats cause harm hepatic important integrity. This is partially due to the leakage of such metabolites to semen by the liver cytosol [16]. Cell cytosol release of ALT and AST can be caused as secondary cell necrosis shifts [17]. High ALT and AST activities comprise a high fluidity of the hepatic micromembrane, free radical growth, and modification of the liver tissue [18].

For a hepatotoxic activity of the A. annua L. extract, serum hepatic biomarkers such as alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase have been measured. Since the liver is a crucial organ for xenobiotics synthesis and detox, it is subjected to harm caused by a number of chemicals [19]. Since A. yearua cannot predispose the patient to hepatotoxicity because the amounts of albumin, AST, ALT, absolute, and clear bilirubin are not modified both A. annua L. treated classes. Flavonoids, an active component of the extract of A. annua L., have a strong anti-oxidant function to alleviate oxidative stress induced by free radicals, which may clarify decreased activity of hepatic wound transaminases. It is compatible with [20], which showed that AST and ALT levels were reduced after A. annua L treatment.

annua L. was reported to improve proteinuria and eliminate NS progression [21]. Many researches have also argued that ARS can minimize renal lesion in rats by inhibiting the platelet-derived plant growth factor B expression (PDGF-B) [22], metalloproteinase tissue inhibitor-2 spatiotemporal activation of protein kinase c (PKC), and its hetero-demer function [23]. The results of DN rats treated with ARS in the high-performance sequence would establish possible therapeutic targets [24]. In the case of malaria nephropathy after A. annua L., the kidney activity has further been improved after operation.


annua L. can improve liver and kidney function tests after injury by lead toxicity. This study aimed to investigate if Artemisia annua L. (A. annua L.) impacted liver and kidney activities following lead-induced damages.



The authors would like to thank all study participants of Market Research and Consumer Protection Center, University of Baghdad, Iraq. Prior to commencing this study, ethics approval was obtained from Market Research and Consumer Protection Center, University of Baghdad. (Mracpc.Un.Bagh.1407).


Author Contributions

ATM, SJM, and ASF drafted the manuscript and final approval of the version to be published. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.



This research did not receive any specific grant from fundig agencies in the public, commercial, or non-profit sectors.


Conflict of Interest

No potential conflicts were reported by the authors.



Sudad jasim mohammed

Adil Turki Al-musawi

Aliaa Saadoon Abdul-Razzaq


Adil Turki Al-Musawi, Sudad Jasim Mohammed, Aliaa Saadoon Abdul-Razzaq, Evaluation of Rats’ Biochemical Markers in Artemisia Annua Linn. Extract After Lead Toxicity. J. Med. Chem. Sci., 2022, 5(7) 1247-1252


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