Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) are semi-conductor metal oxide nanoparticles widely used in biomedical fields, as well as in the cosmetics and skin care products. It is important to note that nano-composites have toxic properties determined by factors such as size, structure and main components, shape, physical and chemical properties, and method of synthesis, which affect health [1,2]. Toxicity that is mediated by nano particles consists of oxidative stress, infection, genetic harm, preventing cell division and cell loss [3,4]. The increasing growth of applications of nanoparticles evokes an increasing necessity to evaluate the potential toxicity of nanomaterial, which has not been fully identified to date. Thus, the study of its toxicity is necessary to prevent its harmful effects. Humans are exposed to ZnO-NPs out of the oral, inhaled and dermal route. These particles have the capability to travel throughout the body and penetrate into individual cells and their nuclei . Many traditional plants have been used for many years in treatments and disease prevention as well as to improve the health of the body. Phytochemicals in plants work within molecular level to guard human cells from many pathogens . Garlic (Allium sativum L.) belongs to the onion genus, from Amaryllidacaea family, monocotyledonous, perennial plant, native to central Asia and northern Iran . Because garlic contains many vigorous chemical constituents, like amino acids, organic sulfates, vitamins and minerals, it has been proposed to be an auspicious candidate for preserving homeostasis . In addition, it has several biological benefits, including stimulating immune function, promoting detoxification of foreign compounds, reactive oxygen species (ROS) - scavenger, encouragement DNA reform, anti-microbial effect, anti- inflammation, anti-diabetic, induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of angio genesis [9-11]. Blood parameters are one of the main signs in detecting the real physiological condition of the organism. Estimate of hematological parameters levels has a key role in determining the toxicity of nano particles in the body . So, this experiment deals with the hematological parameters that diagnose blood disorders due to the harmful effect of zinc oxide and evaluate the positive role of garlic oil on ZnO-NPs induced hematotoxicity in laboratory animals.
Animals and Study Groups
Male albino rats (5-7 weeks old, 190-260 g) were obtained from animal laboratories center, and the rats were held at house in special plastic crates in a room of well ventilation kept at 25 °C ± 2 °C and 70% ± 10% of relative humidity, a twelve hours light/dark cycle; it has wide places to access for water and food. Rats were adapted to laboratory conditions for a week, and then the experiment was conducted on them. The rats were randomly separated into 4 packs, six in each group as shown in Table 1.
Animals were injected by an anesthetizer and dissected at the end of the treatment course, and blood samples were taken in EDTA tubes through heart puncture and utilized promptly for hematological parameter measurement. An auto hematology analyzer was used to measure hemoglobin (HB), red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), hematocrit (HCT), and platelets (PLTs).
Material and methods
The following chemicals were applied: Zinc oxide nanoparticles aqueous dispersion (suspension in water 20 wt%), white liquid appearance. ZnO purity=99.5, particle size= 30-40 nm, ph =8.9. taken out of American Research Nanomaterials, Inc. Houston, Texas (USA), and garlic oil product obtained from La Tourangelle, INC. Artisan made.
SPSS version 26 was used for statistical analysis. Variances among packs were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Dawkins test, and statistics were presented as mean± standard deviation. A level difference of p<0.05 was taken into consideration as statistically significant.
Result and Discussion
As illustrated in Figure 1, no statistically significant changes (P>0.05) were observed in the blood profile between CON group and GO group. Nonetheless, a significant drop was observed in RBCs count, HB content, HCT percentage, and PLTs count, whilst WBCs count significantly augmented after ZnO-NPs treatment compared with the control group. Co-administration of garlic oil to exposed - ZnO nanoparticles rats restored RBCs, HB, HCT, and PLTs values approximately to control levels. Nevertheless, GO underestimated the rise in WBCs count in metal oxide -intoxicated rats. Systemic toxicity of chemicals counts upon the way of administration and place of exposure. Hematological parameters are the first to be affected by systemic toxicity. Therefore, evaluation of hematological parameters can be considered as a diagnosis of the harmful effects of foreign compounds on blood components in vivo [15,16]. To assess the advantageous impact of garlic oil towards ZnO-NPs prompted hematotoxicity, basic hematological parameters in rats were measured. ZnO-NPs poisoned rats revealed a substantial drop in mean values of RBC, Hb, HCT and PLT, but a substantial rise in WBC count happened when compared with control rats. Decreased red blood cells count is related to the progress of anemia. The toxin stimulates lipid peroxidation system leading to the production of lipid peroxides that hemolysate red blood cells . Among the main pathological after effects of free radical-induced tissue lipid peroxidation are greater cellular distortion, decreased erythrocyte survival by augmented auto-necrosis, and augmented lipid fluidity that initiates a chain of inflammatory reactions that cause endothelial dysfunction [18,19]. Low levels of hemoglobin which is the main intracellular protein for RBCs is resulted from losing blood or rapid destruction of blood cells, leading to anemia . Hematocrit is a key factor of blood viscidness. A decrease in the count of erythrocytes, a decreasing quantity of hemoglobin in every erythrocyte, or both may arise lower than normal hematocrit. Chemicals or toxins damage myeloid tissue by inhibiting the enzymes needed for hemopoiesis [21,22]. Circulating thrombocytopenia is due to decreased platelet production or increased platelet destruction . The increased WBC level results from the triggering the physique's immunity to counteract the toxic influence of the metal. Leukocytosis can also be ascribed to the undeveloped WBC in the blood [24,25]. In the current work the beneficial special effects of Garlic oil on ZnONPs-hematotoxicity were observed in ZnO-NPs +GO rats. Garlic can be presented as a ubiquitous antidote or protective herb towards numerous harmful substances through controlled clinical trials. Our results are consistent with the evidence of many previous laboratory and animal experiments that studied the protecting effects of garlic for chemical toxicities, proving that garlic in addition to its own main constituents could reduce the toxicity of various factors in the blood and many organs of the body through a variety of mechanisms, such as radical sifting and antioxidant effect, lipid peroxidation reduction, anti-inflammatory agent, chelating agent, cell protection activities, increased protein synthesis in tissues that have been damaged, suppression of apoptosis [26-31]. Al-Sebaey et al. (2019) evaluated the effect of garlic extract on blood toxicity, immune-suppression, and hepatic oxidative stress induced by cyclophosphamide (CYP) in male rats. They found that garlic extract can be used to protect against these toxic effects, by modulating immunity as well as improving oxidative stress . Nasr et al. (2017) investigated the effect of garlic on lead acetate-induced testicular toxicity in male rats. They concluded that garlic has a prophylactic effect against the possibility of unfavorable apoptosis caused by lead acetate . Consistent with the findings of those studies, the results of the current study manifest that garlic can play a role in modulating ZnONPs-induced hematological disorders.
Figure 1: Effects of dosing rats with zinc oxide nanoparticles and co-dosing with garlic oil on the following blood markers: (a) RBCs, (b) HB, (c) HTC, (d)WBCs, and (e) PLTs. Data were represented as a mean ± SD, different letters denote significant variances within the column (p < 0.05), test = ANOVA, post hoc = Duncan
In this study, we reported that zinc nano particles have toxic effects on blood parameters. As garlic oil has an outstanding ability to reduce blood toxicity, its therapeutic properties can be exploited in therapeutic strategies in this field.
All authors contributed toward data analysis, drafting and revising the paper and agreed to be responsible for all the aspects of this work.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
The ethical issues (including plagiarism, data fabrication, double publications) were fully noted by the authors.
Jalank Hameed Mahmoud
Ozdan Akram Ghareeb
HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE
Jalank Hameed Mahmoud, Ozdan Akram Ghareeb, Yawooz Hameed Mahmood. The Role of Garlic Oil in Improving Disturbances in Blood Parameters Caused by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles, J. Med. Chem. Sci., 2022, 5(1) 76-81