Document Type : Review Article

Authors

1 Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, School of Sciences and Aerospace Studies, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya

2 Africa Centre of Excellence II in Phytochemicals, Textiles and Renewable Energy (ACE II PTRE), Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya

3 Department of Quality Control and Quality Assurance, AgroWays Uganda Limited, Jinja, Uganda

4 Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda

5 Mohamed Obiad Mubarak Laboratories, University of Gezira, Gezira, Sudan

6 Department of Chemistry, College of Science and Technology, University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda

7 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kyambogo University, Kampala, Uganda

Abstract

Poisonous snake envenomation is a complex neglected health problem implicated in mortality, disability, psychological morbidity, and socio-economic losses recorded worldwide. An antivenin serum, the only medically recommended treatment for snakebites, has several drawbacks including, hypersensitivity, inability to prevent local tissue damage, are scarce and unaffordable in most snakebite endemic areas. In many rural communities all over the world, plants have been utilized for managing snakebites. This review seeks to identify plants reported as antivenom remedies in the East Africa and the scientific studies thereof which could support their use in the treatment of snake envenomation. A review of scientific articles was undertaken to identify information on traditional knowledge of medicinal plants used to treat snake envenomation in East Africa and their antivenom efficacy. A total of 361 plant species were retrieved to have been reported as traditional therapies for snakebites in East Africa. The review identified distinct cases of doctrine of signatures and zoopharmacognosy in snakes using Opilia amentacea, Hugonia castaneifolia and Microglossa pyrifolia respectively. Evaluations of the antivenom efficacy of 44 species (12.2%) have been done globally, and most species found to be effective in neutralizing the lethal activities of snake venoms. Ethnomedicinal plants play a revered holistic role in East African antisnake venom therapy. Conyza sumatrensis, Hyptis pectinata, Justicia betonica, and Maesa lanceolata used to treat specific snakebites merit further studies. 

Graphical Abstract

Medicinal Plants Used as Snake Venom Antidotes in East African Community: Review and Assessment of Scientific Evidences

Keywords

Main Subjects

[1]. Tomaz M.A., Patrão-Neto F.C., Melo P.A., Plant Toxins, 2016, 1

[2]. Launch of WHO's global strategy for control and prevention of snakebite envenoming. World Health Organiziation, Genenva, Switzerland. WHO, 2019, Avaible from https://www.who.int/news-room/events/launch-of-the-global-strategy-for-snakebite-prevention-and-control

[3]. Williams D., Gutierrez J.M., Harrison R., Warrell D.A., White J., Winkel K.D., Gopalakrishnakone P., Lancet, 2010, 375:89

[4]. Gutierrez J.M., Williams D., Fan H.W., Warrell D., Toxicon, 2010, 56:1223

[5]. Warrell D.A., Gutiérrez J.M., Calvete J.J., Williams D., Indian J. Med. Res., 2013, 138:38

[6]. Gómez-Betancur I., Gogineni V., Salazar-Ospina A., León, Molecules F., 2019, 24:3276

[7]. Omara T., Kagoya S., Openy A., Omute T., Ssebulime S., Kiplagat K.M., Bongomin O., Trop. Med. Health, 2020, 48:6

[8]. Omara T., J. Toxicol, 2020, 2020:1828521

[9]. Harrison R.A., Oluoch G.O., Ainsworth S., Alsolaiss J., Bolton F., Arias A.S., Gutiérrez J.M., Rowley P., Kalya S., Ozwara H., Casewell N.R., PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis., 2017, 11:e0005969

[10]. Okumu M.O., Patel M.N., Bhogayata F.R., Ochola F.O., Olweny I.A., Onono J.O., Gikunju J.K., F1000Res., 2019, 8:1588

[11]. Nishijima C.M., Rodrigues C.M., Silva M.A., Lopes-Ferreira M., Vilegas W., Hiruma-Lima C.A., Molecules, 2009, 14:1072

[12]. Mahamadi C., Wunganayi T., Cogent Chem., 2018, 4:1538547

[13]. Medecins Sans Frontiers. Snakebite in South Sudan: little hope of a cure for the most vulnerable. 2014, Available: https://www.msfaccess.org/snakebite-south-sudan-little-hope-cure-most-vulnerable

[14]. Ochola F.O., Okumu M.O., Muchemi G.M., Mbaria J.M., Gikunju J.K., Pan Afr. Med. J., 2018, 29:217

[15]. Wangoda R., Watmon B., Kisige M., East Central Afr. J. Surg., 2004, 9:1

[16]. Devi C.M., Bai M.V., Lal A.V., Umashankar P.R., Krishnan L.K., J. Biochem. Biophys. Method., 2002, 51:129

[17]. Chintamunnee V., Mahomoodally M.F., J. Herbal Med., 2012, 2:113

[18]. WHO Global Report on Traditional and Complementary Medicine, 2019, Accessed 04 Mar 2020, Available  https://www.who.int/traditional-complementary-integrative-medicine/WhoGlobalReportOnTraditionalAndComplementaryMedicine2019.pdf?ua=1

[19]. Gurib-Fakim A., Mol. Aspect. Med., 2006, 27:1

[20]. Mahomoodally M.F., Evid. Based Complement. Alternat Med., 2013, 2013:617459

[21]. Ntume R., Anywar U.G., Curr. Life Sci., 2015, 1:6

[22]. Sharma A., Flores-Vallejo R.D.C., Cardoso-Taketa A., Villarreal M.L., J. Ethnopharmacol., 2017, 208:264

[23]. Bally P.R.O., Bull. Misc. Inform.,1937, 1937:10

[24]. Tabuti J.R.S., Dhillion S.S., Lye K.A., J. Ethnopharmacol., 2003, 88:19

[25]. Jeruto P., Lukhoba C., Ouma G., Otieno D., Mutai C.,  Afr. J. Tradit. Complement. Altern. Med., 2007, 5:103

[26]. Kokwaro J.O., Medicinal plants of East Africa. 2nd Edn. East African Literature Bureau, Nairobi, Kenya, 1993

[27]. Jeruto P., Mutai C., Ouma G., Lukhoba C., Nyamaka R.L., Manani S.D., J. Anim. Plant. Sci.,2010, 8:1016

[28]. Kikoti Z., Livelihoods and Ecosystem Services around Protected Areas, A case study from Ugalla Ecosystem, Tabora, Tanzania. University of Klagenfurt, Austria, M.Sc. thesis, 2009

[29]. The New Vision. How to avoid gangrene from a snake bite. 2007,  Accessed 03 Mar 2020, https://www.newvision.co.ug/news/1168227/avoid-gangrene-snake-bite

[30]. Owuor B.O., Kisangau D.P.,J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomedicine,  2006, 2:7

[31]. Owuor B.O., Mulemi B.A., Kokwaro J.O., J. Ethnobiol., 2005, 20:129

[32]. Hamisy W.C., Mwaseba D., Zilihona I.E., Mwihomeke S.T., Status and Domestication Potential of Medicinal Plants in the Uluguru Mountain Area, Tanzania. Wildlife Conservation Society of Tanzania (WCST), 2000

[33]. Maregesi S., Kagashe G., Masatu K., Schol. Acad. J. Pharm., 2013, 2:381

[34]. Watt J.M., Breyer-Brandwijk M.G., The Medicinal and Poisonous plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. Edinburgh & London E.&S. Livingstone Ltd, 1962

[35]. Okot D.F., Anywar G., Namukobe J., Byamukama R., Trop. Med. Health, 2020, 48:44

[36]. Oryema C., Bukenya Ziraba R., Omagor N., Opio A., Afr. J. Ecol., 2010, 48:285

[37]. Tugume P., Kakudidi E.K., Buyinza M., Namaalwa J., Kamatenesi M., Mucunguzi P., Kalema J., J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed., 2016, 12:5

[38]. Gumisiriza H., Birungi G., Olet E.A., Sesaazi C.D., J. Ethnopharmacol., 2019, 239:111926

[39]. Wanzala W., Syombua S.M., Alwala J.O., Indian J. Ethnopharmceut., 2016, 2:46

[40]. Daily Monitor, Using nature to get rid of snakes and their venom. Accessed 15 Aug 2020, https://www.monitor.co.ug/Magazines/HealthLiving/Using-nature-to-get-rid-of-snakes-and-their-venom/689846-2852038-78tprn/index.html

[41]. Mbuni Y.M., Wang S., Mwangi B.N., Mbari N.J., Musili P.M., Walter N.O., Hu G., Zhou Y., Wang Q., Plants, 2020, 9:331

[42]. Hedberg I., Hedberg O., Madati P.J., Mshigeni K.E., Mshiu E.N., Samuelsson G., J. Ethnopharmacol., 1982, 6:29

[43]. Chhabra S.C., Mahunnah R.L.A., Mshiu E.N., J. Ethnopharmacol., 1987, 21:253

[44]. Kareru P.G., Kenji G.M., Gachanja A.N., Keriko J.M., Mungai G., Afr. J. Tradit. Complement. Altern. Med., 2007, 4:75

[45]. Odongo S.O., Medicinal plants of chuka community in tharaka nithi county, kenya and some of their selecte essential elements, MSc Thesis, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya, 2013

[46]. Muriuki J., Medicinal trees in smallholder agroforestry systems: assessing some factors influencing culfivafion by farmers East of Mt Kenya, PhD Dissertation, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Australia, 2011

[47]. The Kamba Creation Story and Origin of Death. Acessed 03 Mar 2020, https://lostmythologies.com/the-kamba-creation-story-and-origin-of-death/

[48]. Kokwaro J.O., Medicinal Plants of East Africa. East Africa Education Publishers, Nairobi, Kenya, 1994

[49]. Kigen G., Kipkore W., Wanjohi B., Haruki B., J. Kemboi, Pharmacog. Res., 2017, 9:333

[50]. Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism Forestry And Beekeeping Division. The Role of Non Wood Forest Products In Food Security And Income Generation. Support to formulation of national forest programme– Tanzania, 2000, 67

[51]. Kodi P., Mwangi M.E., Kiplagat C.P., Karuiki T.S.,  Eur. J. Med. Plant., 2017, 21:1

[52]. Maundu P., Tengn`eas B., Birnie A., Muema N., Useful trees and shrubs for Kenya, 2nd ed. World Agroforestry Centre, 2005

[53]. Weiss E.A., Econ. Bot., 1979, 33:35 .

[54]. Doka I.G., Yagi S.M., Ehnobot. Leaf, 2009, 13:1409

[55]. Issa T.O., Mohamed Y.S., Yagi S., Ahmed R.H., Najeeb T.M., Makhawi A.M., Khider T.O., J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed., 2018, 14:31

[56]. Okello J., Ssegawa P., Afr. J. Ecol., 2007, 45:76

[57]. Kamatenesi M.M., Acipa A., Oryem-Origa H., J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed., 2011, 7:7

[58]. Mutwiwa C., Rotich B., Kauti M., J. Rithaa, J. Dis. Med. Plants., 2018, 4:110

[59]. Namukobe J., Kasenene J.M., Kiremire B.T., Byamukama R., Kamatenesi-Mugisha M., Krief S., Dumontet V., Kabasa J.D., J. Ethnopharmacol., 2011, 136:236

[60]. Chhabra S.C., Mahunnah R.L.A., Mshiu E.N., J. Ethnopharmacol., 1989, 25:339

[61]. Odongo E., Mungai N., Mutai P., Karumi E., Mwangi J., J. Omale, Appl. Med. Res., 2018, 4:22

[62]. Hamill F.A., Apio S., Mubiru N.K., Mosango M., Bukenya-Ziraba R., Maganyi O.W., Soejarto D.D., J. Ethnopharmacol., 2000, 70:281

[63]. Hines D.A., Eckman K., Indigenous Multipurpose Trees of Tanzania: Uses and Economic Benefits for O.D. People. FO:Misc/93/9 Working paper. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome, August 1993

[64]. Haerdi F., Acta Tropica, Suppl., 1964, 8:1

[65]. Bosch C.H., In:  Schmelzer, G.H. & Gurib-Fakim, A. (Eds). PROTA  Wageningen, Netherlands, 2006, Accessed 25 Aug 2020,    https://www.prota4u.org/database/protav8.asp?g=pe&p=Trichodesma+zeylanicum+(Burm.f.)+R.Br

[66]. Kigen G., Kamuren Z., Njiru E., Wanjohi B., Kipkore W., Evid. Based Complement. Altern. Med., 2019, 2019:897693

[67]. Kamau L.N., Mbaabu P.M., Mbaria J.M., Gathumbi P.K., Kiama S.G., Tang, 2016, 6:e21

[68]. Mollel N.P., In: Schmelzer, G.H. & Gurib-Fakim, A. (Editors).PROTA, Wageningen, Netherlands, 2013,  Accessed 06 March 2020.https://uses.plantnet-project.org/en/Maerua_triphylla_(PROTA)

[69]. Prota4U, Combretum padoides Engl. & Diels, Accessed 04 Apr 2020,  https://www.prota4u.org/database/protav8.asp?g=pe&p=Combretum+padoides+Engl.+&+Diels

[70]. Kipkore W., Wanjohi B., Rono H., Kigen G., J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed., 2014, 10:24

[71]. Okello S.V., Nyunja R.O., Netondo G.W., Onyango J.C., Afr. J. Tradit. Complement. Altern. Med., 2010, 7:1

[72]. Kigen G., Some F., Kibosia J., Rono H., Kiprop E., Wanjohi B., Kigen P., Kipkore W., J. Biodivers. Biopros. Dev., 2014, 1:1

[73]. Nambejja C., Tugume P., Nyakoojo C., Kamatenesi-Mugisha M., Ethnobot. Res. Appl., 2019, 18:1

[74]. Augustino S., Gillah P.R., Int. Forest. Rev., 2005, 7:44

[75]. Chhabra S.C., Mahunnah R.L.A., Mshiu E.N., J. Ethnopharmacol., 1990, 28:255

[76]. Musa M.S., Abdelrasool F.E., Elsheikh E.A., Ahmed L.A.M.N., Mahmoud A.L.E., Yagi S.M., J. Med. Plant Res., 2011, 5:287

[77]. Chhabra S.C.,  Mahunnah R.L.A., Mshiu E.N., J. Ethnopharmacol., 1990, 29:295

[78]. Hedberg I., Hedberg O., Madati P., Mshigeni K.E., Msbiu E.N., Samuelsson G., J. Ethnopharmacol., 1983, 9:105

[79]. Kaigongi M.M., Musila F.M., Int. J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed., 2015, 1:1

[80]. Mutie F.M., Gao L.L., Kathambi V., Rono P.C., Musili P.M., Ngugi G., Hu G.W., Wang Q.F., Evid. based Complement. Alternat. Med., 2020, 2020:1543831

[81].        Rufford, Ethnomedicine of Tugen Community, Baringo County- Kenya, 2020, Accessed 20 Mar 2020, https://www.rufford.org/files/19802-1%20Medicinal%20Plants%20of%20Baringo,%20Kenya.pdf 

[82]. Ramathal D.C., Ngassapa O.D., Pharmaceut. Biol., 2001, 39:132

[83]. Kigenyi J., Culture and Environment in Africa Series, African Studies Centre, Cologne, Germany, 2016

[84]. Ssegawa P., Kasenene J.M., J. Ethnobiol., 2007, 27:110

[85]. Okach D.O., Nyunja A.R.O., Opande G., Int. J. Herbal Med., 2013, 1:135

[86]. Adia M.M., Anywar G., Byamukama R., Kamatenesi-Mugisha M., Sekagya Y., Kakudidi E.K., Kiremire B.T., J. Ethnopharmacol., 2014, 155:580

[87]. Pakia M., Plant ecology and ethnobotany of two sacred forests (kayas) at the Kenya coast, MSc Thesis, University of Natal, Durban, 2000

[88]. Orwa C., Mutua A., Kindt R., Jamnadass R., Anthony S., Agroforestree Database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0. World Agroforestry Centre, Kenya, 2009

[89]. Hilonga S., Otieno J.N., Ghorbani A., Pereus D., Kocyan A., de Boer H., South Afr. J. Bot., 2019, 122:214

[90]. Nankaya J., Nampushi J., Petenya S., Balslev H., Environ. Dev. Sustain., 2013, 15:5

[91]. EL-Kamali H.H., Ethnobot. Leaflets., 2009, 13:89

[92]. Opio D.R., Andama E., Kureh G.T., Eur. J. Med. Plants, 2017, 21:1

[93]. India J., Efficacy of some medicinal plants used in various parts of Kenya in treating selected bacterial and fungal pathogens, MSc Thesis, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya, 2015

[94]. Irakiza R., Vedaste M., Elias B., Nyirambangutse B., Serge N.J., Marc N., Koedoe, 2016, 58:a1348

[95]. Fratkin E., J. Ethnobiol., 1996, 16:63

[96]. Chhabra S.C., Mahunnah R.L.A., Mshiu E.N., J. Ethnopharmacol., 1991, 33:143

[97]. Kisangau D., Kauti M., Mwobobia R., Kanui T., Musimba N., Int. J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed., 2017, 4:1

[98]. Lacroix D., Prado S., Kamoga D., Kasenene J., Namukobe J., Krief S., Dumontet V., Mouray E., Bodo B., Brunois F., J. Ethnopharmacol., 2011, 133:850

[99]. Schultz F., Anywar G., Wack B., Quave C.L., Garbe L., J. Ethnopharmacol., 2020, 256:112742

[100]. Pan S.Y., Litscher G., Gao S.H., Zhou S.F., Yu Z.L., Chen H.Q., Zhang S.F., Tang M.K., Sun J.N., Ko K.M., Evid. Based Complement. Alternat Med., 2014, 2014:525340

[101]. Houghton P.J., Osibogun I.M., J. Ethnopharmacol., 1993, 39:1

[102]. Lans C., Harper T., Georges K., Bridgewater E., BMC Complement. Altern. Med., 2001, 1:10

[103]. Stewart Z.P., Pierzynski G.M., Middendorf B.J., Prasad P.V.V.,  J. Exp. Bot., 2020, 71:632

[104]. Obakiro S.B., Kiprop A., Kowino I., Kigondu E., Odero M.P., Omara T., Bunalema L., Trop. Med. Health, 2020, 48:68

[105]. Yirgu A., Chippaux J.P., Venom J., Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis., 2019, 25:e20190017

[106]. Lebbie A., Turay M., Sierra Leone J. Biomed. Res., 2017, 9:7

[107]. Enenebeaku C.K., Umerie S.C., Nwankwo M.U., Enenebeaku U.E., WNOFNS, 2018, 16:33

[108]. Efferth T., Greten H., Med. Aromatic Plants., 2016, 5:e177

[109]. Pearce J.M.S., Eur. Neurol., 2008, 60:51

[110]. Krief S., Hladik C.M., Haxaire C.J., J. Ethnopharmacol., 2005, 101: 1

[111]. Krief S., Huffman M.A., Sevenet T., Hladik C.M., Grellier P., Loiseau P.M., Wrangham R.W., Am. J. Primatol., 2006, 68:51

[112]. Matt S., Fantastically Wrong: The strange history of using organ-shaped plants to treat disease. Wired Conde nest., 2014, Accessed 15 Mar 2020.https://www.wired.com/2014/07/fantastically-wrong-doctrine-of-signatures/

[113]. Bennett B.C., Econ. Bot., 2007, 61:246

[114]. Omara T., Evid. Based Complement Altern Med., 2020, 2020:4538602

[115]. Kuria K.A.M., De Coster S., Muriuki G., Masengo W., Kibwage I., Hoogmartens J., Laekeman G.M., J. Ethnopharmacol., 2001, 74:141

[116]. Molander M., Nielsen L., Søgaard S., Staerk D., Rønsted N., Diallo D., Chifundera K.Z., Van Staden J., Jäger A.K., J. Ethnopharmacol., 2014, 157:171

[117]. Ramaswamy M., Duraikannu S., Solaimuthu C., Int. J. Sci. Res. Biol. Sci., 2019, 6:31

[118]. Malathi R., Sivakumar D., Chandrasekar S., J. Pharmacog. Phytochem., 2019, 8:2335

[119]. Nwune H.C., Milala M.A., Zanna H., Am. J. BioSci., 2017, 5:54

[120]. Lata K., Priyanka R.G., Asha T., Rabindra N., Nitin S., Int. J. Pharmaceut. Drug Anal., 2016, 4:505

[121]. Samy R.P., Thwin M.M., Gopalakrishnakone P., Ignacimuthu S., J. Ethnopharmacol., 2008, 115:302

[122]. Alam M.I., Pharmacol. Pharm., 2014, 5:828

[123]. Mohanapriya M., Nandhini A.R., Praveen K.P., Yoganandhini G., Gowri S.B.A., Int. Res. J. Pharm., 2017, 8:189

[124]. Asad M.H.H.B., Razi M.T., Ubaid M., Durr-e-Sabih Y.T., Sajjad A., Mehmood R., Mahmood Q.  , Ansari M.M., Karim S., Mehmood Z., Hussain I., Bio. Med. Res. Int., 2014, 2014:970540

[125]. Asad M.H.H.B., Sabih D.E., Chaudhory B.A., Ahmad I., Hussain M.S., Izhar N., Akmal N., Shahzad A.H., Hussain I., J. Anim. Plant Sci., 2014, 24:1701

[126]. Asad M.H.H.B., Durr-e-Sabih Y.T., Murtaza G., Hussain M.S., Nasir M.T., Azhar S., Khan S.A., Hussain I., Acta Pol. Pharma., 2014, 71:625

[127]. Asad M.H.H.B., Razi M.T., Durr-e-Sabih Y.T., Najamus-Saqib Q., Nasim S.J., Murtaza G., Hussain I., Curr. Sci., 2014, 105:1419

[128]. Gujral M.L., Dhawan S.N., Indian J. Med. Res., 1956, 44:625

[129]. Adzu B., Abubakar M.S., Izebe K.S., Akumka D.D., Gamaniel K.S., J. Ethnopharmacol., 2005, 96:507

[130]. Emmanuel A., Ebinbin A., Amlabu W., J. Complement. Integr. Med., 2014, 11:93

[131]. Janardhan B., Shrikanth V.M., Mirajkar K.K., More S.S.,  J. Venom Anim. Toxins Incl. Trop. Dis., 2014, 20:12

[132]. Janardhan B., Shrikanth V.M., More V.S., Melappa G., Zameer F., More S.S., Heliyon, 2019, 5:e02163

[133]. Janardhan H., Shrikanth V.M., Dhananjaya B.L., Gautham S.A., More S.S., Uday M., J. Pharm. Res., 2017, 11:1095

[134]. Mukherjee A.K., Doley R., Saikia D., Toxicon, 2008, 51:1548

[135]. Arafa N.M.S., Mubarak S.A., Ciênc. Téc.Vitiviníc., 2017, 32:1

[136]. Sani I., Umar R.A., Hassan S.W., Faruq U.Z., Bello F., Acad. J. Chem., 2020, 5:10

[137]. Wufen B.M., Adamu H.M., Cham Y.A., Kela S.L., Nat. Prod. Rad., 2007, 6:18

[138]. Mishal R.H., Vadnere G.P., Mishal H.B., J. Nat. Remed., 2014, 4:126

[139]. Chippaux J.P., Rakotonirina V.S., Rakotonirina A., Dzikouk G., Bull. Soc. Herpétol. Fr., 2001, 97:5

[140]. Janardhan B., Shrikanth V.M., Mirajkar K.K., More S.S., J. Herbs Spices Med. Plant., 2015, 21:283

[141]. Delmut M.B., Leila M.L.P., Paula J.R., Conceicao E.C., Santos A.S., Pfrimer I.A.H., J. Pharm. Technol. Drug Res., 2013, 2:1

[142]. Verrastro R.B., Maria-Torres A., Ricciardi G., Teibler P., Maruñak S., Barnaba C., Larcher R., Nicolini G., Dellacassa E., J. Ethnopharmacol., 2018, 212:36

[143]. Thakur P., Rana A.C., J. Tradit. Complement. Med., 2013, 3:188

[144]. Badilla B., Chaves F., Jiménez S., Rodríguez G., Poveda L., Pharmacog Mag., 2008, 4:27

[145]. Amresh G., Reddy G.D., Rao C.V., Singh P.N., J. Ethnopharmacol., 2007, 110:526

[146]. Isa H.I., Ambali S.F., Suleiman M.M., Abubakar M.S., Kawu M.U., Shittu M., Yusuf, P. O, Habibu, B., IOSR J. Environ. Sci Toxicol. Food Technol., 2015, 9:100

[147]. Abubakar A.Z., Adamu A., Shehu U.F., Mohammed Z., Ibrahim G., Abubakar M.S., Trop. J. Nat. Prod. Res., 2020, 4:286

[148]. Gnanaselvan S., Sivaraman T., J. Appl. Pharmaceut. Sci., 2020, 10:113

[149]. Agoro J.W., US Patent 4,124,724 (Chemical Abstract 90 (1979) 103649f), 1978

[150]. Gopi K., Anbarasu K., Renu K., Jayanthi S., Vishwanath B.S., Jayaraman G., Biochim. Biophys. Acta., 2016, 1860:1528

[151]. Kingsley A., Oge O., Trop. J. Appl. Nat. Sci., 2018, 2:34

[152]. Kadiri S., Comparative, antibacterial, anti-venom and phytochemical studies of Indigofera capitata Kotschy and Indigofera conferta Gillett in albino rats, PhD Thesis, Ahmadu Bello University, Nigeria, 2016

[153]. Ibrahim B., Abdulkadir S., Sci. World J., 2020, 15:126

[154]. Reddi K.V.N.R., Rajesh S.S., Narendra K., Jangala S., Reddy P.C.O., Satya A.K., Sivaraman T., Sekhar A.C., Bangladesh J. Pharmacol., 2014, 9:22

[155]. Adeyi A.O., Ajisebiola S.B., Adeyi E.O., Alimba C.G., Okorie U.G., Sci. Afr., 2020, 8:e00356

[156]. Ajisebiola B.S., Rotimi S., Anwar U., Adeyi A.O., Toxin Rev., 2020, 1:1

[157]. Asha T., Thai J. Pharmaceut. Sci., 2020, in press

[158]. Borges M.H., Alves D.L., Raslan D.S., Piló-Veloso D., Rodrigues V.M., Homsi-Brandeburgo M.I., de Lima M.E., J. Ethnopharmacol., 2005, 98:21

[159]. Iful E.S., Studies on the Antivenom Activities of the Aqueous Extracts of Paullinia Pinnata and Detarium Microcarpum Against Echis Carinatus (Carpet Viper) Venom. PhD Dissertation, University of Jos,  Jos, Nigeria, 2008

[160]. Oge O., Kingsley A., Chibueze I., Chinwuba P., Am. J. Res. Comm., 2018, 6:1

[161]. Oge O., Chibueze I., Kingsley A., Chinwuba P., Nchekwube I.H.M., Ezeokafor E.N., Int. J. Sci. Eng. Res., 2018, 9:218

[162]. Sanusi J., Shehu K., Jibia A.B., Mohammed I., Sanusi L., IOSR J. Pharm. Biol. Sci., 2014, 9:92

[163]. Wannang N.N., Wudil A.M., Dapar M.L.P., Bichi L.A., J. Pharm. Bioresour.,  2005, 2:80

[164]. Auwal A.A., Ahmed A., Magaji M.G., Balami D.P., Ofemili P.Y., Jami’u M.I., Innorig. Int. J. Sci., 2018, 5:29

[165]. Ushanandini S., Nagaraju S., Kumar K.H., Vedavathi M., Machiah D.K., Kemparaju K., Vishwanath B.S., Gowda T.V., Girish K.S., Phytother. Res., 2006, 20:851

[166]. Maung K.M., Lynn Z., Trop. Biomed., 2012, 29:580

[167]. Yunusa Y.,  Development of a deep convolutional neural network-based system for object recognition in visible light and infrared images, PhD Thesis, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria, 2017

[168]. Omara T., Musau B., Kagoya S., Am. J. Heterocycl. Chem., 2018, 4:49

[169]. Howes M.J.R., Natural Products, Springer, 2013

[170]. Alama A., Bruzzo C., Cavalieri Z., Forlani A., Utkin Y., Casciano I., Romani M., PLoS One., 2011, 6:e20695

[171]. Giovannini P., Howes M.J.R., J. Ethnopharmacol., 2017, 199:240

[172]. Leanpolchareanchai J., Pithayanukul P., Bavovada R., Saparpakorn P.,  Molecules, 2009, 14:1404

[173]. Lindahl M., Tagesson C., Inflammation, 1993, 17:573

[174]. Lättig J., Böhl M., Fischer P., Tischer S., Tietböhl C., Menschikowski M., Gutzeit H.O., Metz P., Pisabarro M.T., J. Comput. Aided Mol. Des., 2007, 21:473

[175]. Toyama O., Gaeta H.H., de Pinho M.V., Ferreira M.J., Romoff P., Matioli F.F., Magro A.J., Fontes M.R., Toyama M.H., Biomed. Res. Int., 2014, 2014:341270

[176]. Cotrim C.A., de Oliveira S.C., Diz Filho E.B., Fonseca F.V., Baldissera Jr L., Antunes E., Ximenes R.M., Monteiro H.S., Rabello M.M., Hernandes M.Z., de Oliveira Toyama D., Toyama M.H., Chem. Biol. Interact., 2011, 186:9

[177]. Omara T., Kiprop A.K., Ramkat R.C., Cherutoi J., Kagoya S., Nyangena D.M., Tebo T.A., Nteziyaremye P., Karanja L.N., Jepchirchir A., Maiyo A., Kiptui B.J., Mbabazi I., Nakiguli C.K., Nakabuye B.V., Koske C.M., Evid. Based Complement Alternat Med., 2020, 2020:3529081